Yale School of Architecture | Fall 2016 | Peter Eisenman
A survey of canonical buildings in the history of Italian architecture, emphasizing ways of communicating formal motives through drawing and presentation.
Cumulative Composite Drawing
A synthesis of drawings and analyses produced throughout the semester, offering a contrasting look at the urban composition of the city of Rome from the divergent perspectives of Giambattista Nolli and Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Using the Stadium of Domitian, today the Piazza Navona, as a central point of departure, Piranesi's ubiquitous axes of symmetry provide a sense of expansion to the left while Nolli's chaotic network of converging corridors cause the city's urban fabric to collapse in on itself to the right.
(Selected by Peter Eisenman as one of top 10 composite drawings of the class)
Rhythmic Differentiation between San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito
The work of Brunelleschi pays close attention to the intersections of the trivium and quadrivium, as seen for example in the design and construction of the Duomo in Florence. The proportional dimensions of the Duomo were forever immortalized in the rhythmic proportions of Guillame Dufay’s motet, “Nuper Rosarum Flores” first performed for the cathedral’s consecration. In a similar manner to the overlapping rhythmic qualities of a motet, I would like to highlight the critical difference of the spacing of side aisle columns as one traverses the nave in both cathedrals. Through a mirrored comparison of the two sequences of columns as viewed in longitudinal section, I would hope to observe a distinct relationship between the variations of each set with respect to the established vertical datum of each cathedral’s central dome.
Misalignment in Tempio Malatestiano
Alberti's Roman 'facelift' to Tempio Malatestiano, in the same spirit as the modern concept of the Venturian 'decorated shed', serves as a sort of billboard for the unassuming passerby. Through the representation of triumphal arches, set apart by equally spaced Corinthian columns in a sea of white marble, one would least expect to be greeted by the wooden rafters of a gable roof upon entering the temple. Nevertheless, a contrast less visible to the naked eye with regards to the false advertising of Alberti's temple façade can be better observed through plan. In doing so, one will immediately notice the pronounced misalignments between the Corinthian pilasters dividing the front temple façade and the interior walls on either side of the nave. Constrasting the misalignment of Alberti’s resolutely rhythmic exterior façade and the existing interior walls along the nave, I would like to highlight Alberti’s alignment of triumphal arches and pilasters along the exterior entrance façade in relation to the existing interior unicum arch which frames the altar. In particular, I would hope to draw attention to the similarity of the interior arch in section to the profile of the altar’s façade in plan.
On Semicircular Focality within Vignola’s Villa Giulia
The delicate complexity of Villa Giulia as a prime example of Mannerist architecture comes into focus in Vignola’s playfulness with semicircular proportionality juxtaposed with a rigid adherence to conventional symmetry. In particular, such playfulness can be observed in analyzing inscribed semicircular moments within the Nymphaeum and surrounding plaza, as seen by semicircular balustrades surrounding the sunken Nymphaeum in relation to the outer walls of the courtyard.
While each of these semicircular foci will align on a central longitudinal axis in keeping with a standard bilateral garden parterre, I would like to highlight how these moments of semicircular focality within Nymphaeum and surrounding courtyard exponentially converge towards the center of the Nymphaeum, thus emphasizing its depth in creating an effect of perspectival elongation. Likewise, I would like to note Vignola’s treatment of these focal moments in section, noting moments of lateral alignment with columns and arches along the courtyard walls.
Religious vs. Secular Foci within the Piazza del Popolo
In comparing aspects of twin churches, Santa Maria del Miracoli and Santa Maria di Montesanto, rather than just focusing on the churches themselves, it seems necessary to consider their precise orientation within the context of the greater piazza as the force behind their subtle differences in plan.
One immediately notices that both churches are placed in plots between three streets which are oriented directly towards the central monument in the piazza. Yet in closely considering each church’s symmetrical axis of orientation, one discovers that these axes converge at a different point within the piazza, far removed from the central monument. Interestingly, this point of convergence can be placed directly in line with the central axis of a third church in the northeast corner of the piazza, the basilica Santa Maria del Popolo. Thus, it could be argued that the piazza in fact contains two focal points. The independent axial orientation of the twin churches and Santa Maria del Popolo focus at a point completely independent from the seemingly central secular focus of the piazza’s Obelisk monument to which streets and curbsides, designed to achieve optimal approaches towards this object, are oriented.
This desynchronization between the orientation of the twin churches and their adjacent streets towards separate foci results in an elongation of Santa Maria di Montesanto in plan in order to maintain a congruent façade to that of Santa Maria del Miracoli. Thus, while both twin churches seem relatively symmetrical in elevation, one can easily define a central focus within Santa Maria del Miracoli, while it is impossible to define the same centrality within the elliptical plan of Santa Maria di Montesanto.
Stirling’s Summation of Parts at the WZB Berlin Social Science Center
The Wissenschaftszenstrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, located in Berlin, is an example of postmodern architecture comprised of a series of regular polygonal shapes fused together at corners and tangent edges.
Stirling, in a similar manner to Louis Kahn in his incomplete designs for a Dominican monastery in Media, PA, played with various systematic arrangements of regular polygons to create a more complex holistic structure dictated by circulation and program. The resulting plans offer moments of extreme regularity along various curved and orthogonal facades fragmented by instances of customized connectivity between each regular geometry. The resulting interconnected structures outline a central enclosed courtyard.
In analyzing Stirling’s design and plans for the center, I am keen on emphasizing moments of fusion between each instance of regular polygonal geometry. Using various densities and orientations of hatches, I aim to highlight the added complexity and sense of reorientation experienced while traversing between Stirling’s varied polygonal structures.
Yale School of Architecture | Fall 2016 - Summer 2017 | Sunil Bald, John Blood
Vizualization IV: Processing and Presentation
An in-depth representational study of Frank Lloyd Wright's Johnson Wax Building, synthesizing various digital and analog techniques of representation to highlight underlying motives and relationships within the design
A Water Odyssey: The Johnson Wax Headquarters
A short film depicting a repurposed use of the Johnson Wax Building as a water treatment facility within his proposed utopic plans for Broadacre City, using traditional multiplanar techniques with reference to mid-century animation styles
A two point perspective study of the building's central atrium using traditional techniques of hand drafting
Vizualization II: Form + Representation
Design and hand drafted representation of an Infinite Periodic Minimal Surface (IPMS)
Illustration of design process to create the resulting IPMS form
Hand drafted perspective view through the resulting IPMS
A hand drafted study in topography and continuous topology, creating a unique three dimensional surface using techniques of line and shadow
Yale School of Architecture | Spring 2017 | Mark Foster Gage
An exploration of the concept of 'kitbashing' to reinvent iconic architectural projects in new languages as a way to reveal previously unconsidered qualities that they possess
An initial exploration in defining techniques of kitbashing to recreate a seemingly recognizable form, in this case, the male figure
Kitbashed Architectural Icons
Cathedral of Brasília - Oscar Niemeyer
Seed Cathedral - Thomas Heatherwick
A fusion of two iconic architectures, reinventing Niemeyer's mid-century modern icon with techniques found in a techno-critical/populist example of Heatherwick's Seed Cathedral
The resulting structure emphasizes themes of social equality, accessibility, and symmetry found in the works of both architects, amplifying the intent of each singular design
Interior view of the redefined cathedral oculus
Penn Design | Spring 2012 | Andrew Dahlgren
Architecture 202: Recut Fabrication
coun·ter·point (n) /’kaun-ter-,point/
The use of contrast or interplay of elements in a work of art
A series of material and fabrication studies based on contrapuntal themes and variations
Orthogonal vs. non-orthogonal shapes, repetition vs. randomization, and fagility vs. solidity name but a few elements explored in the following designs.
A material study of contrapuntal perspective and construction methods using 1/8” poplar veneer. Taking the positive space produced by a succession of consecutively inlaid circles, each rotated at 10˚ increments, thin slices could be extracted, laser cut, and layered to produce a solid iteration of the resulting shape. Each layer is then rotated a further 10˚ to produce a second variation of the original construct.
Such studies focus on the interplay of perspective. Viewed from the side, each object seems frail and unstable, yet a plan view reveals a much more solid shape.
Early axonometric fabrication drawing
A material exploration of the supportive contrapuntal interplay of interior and exterior elements. The inner female component is entirely detached, yet locked within the outer male component.
While each is individually unstable, together, both elements yield a strong, supportive structure.
Penn Design | Fall 2011 | Suzanne Brandt
Architecture 201: Motion Study
in·ter·val (n) /’int-er-vel/
An in-depth study of the motion of the arm in relation to the production of five harmonic intervals on the violin.
“The effort to materialize movements through sounds; to make 'art' while 'geometrizing' by giving it a reasoned support less perishable than the impusle of the moment- this has led to a sort of abstraction and formalization of the musical compositional act.” - Iannis Xenakis
By measuring the precise positioning of the hand in relation to the instrument, drafts of ortho-graphic elevation, plan, and section reveal a number of geometries governing the position and bend of the elbow
Further analysis depicts the relationship of positive and negative space between the forearm and bicep in conjunction with the gradual rotation of the bending arm